Nesta semana estão sendo realizados na cidade de Cleveland, EUA os dois principais eventos de bioantropologia do mundo. O 44º Congresso da Human Biology Association (HBA) (https://www.humbio.org/) e o 88º Encontro da American Association of Physical Anthropologists (AAPA) (http://physanth.org/annual-meetings/88th-annual-meeting-2019/).
Neste ano a bioantropologia participa com um número recorde de trabalhos aceitos, são três apresentações selecionadas para participar do congresso da HBA e seis para o encontro da AAPA dentro de uma sessão especial sobre Bioantropologia no Brasil. Os trabalhos envolveram discentes, pós-doutorandos e docentes do PPGA e de outras instituições do Brasil e dos EUA, e demonstram a grande amplitude de pesquisas realizadas no âmbito da área de concentração em bioantropologia do PPGA. Este é o maior número de trabalhos aprovados por um grupo de bioantropólogos brasileiros na história dos dois congressos.
Seguem abaixo os resumos dos trabalhos a apresentados.
Prehistoric Oral Health in the Volta Grande of the Xingu River, State of Pará, Amazônia, Brazil
Letícia Morgana Müller, Thaise Macedo Costa, Renato Kipnis, Isabela Diniz, Hilton P. Silva
Prehistoric horticulturalist groups, in general, have a high frequency of cavities, tartar and dental loss in life due to their high carbohydrate diet. In this research, 26 permanent teeth of seven individuals recovered in four archeological sites of prehistoric populations of the Volta Grande region of the Xingu River (UHE Belo Monte Project, PA) were analyzed, of which 19 were molars or premolars. The poor preservation of bone parts and teeth in archeological context of tropical forest is well known. However, as there is a dearth of information regarding the ancient peoples inhabiting the Central Amazonia, any data may be useful to help investigate the health of these groups. In general, the teeth sampled are fragmented or represented by a thin layer of enamel still in the shape of the tooth only as a result of the soil that keeps it static; and no tooth was found integral from the crown to the root. The analysis shows a low prevalence of caries, only in five teeth of three individuals, with higher occurrence on premolars. Tartar was present in four teeth of a single individual, and moderate wear of the occlusal surfaces was seen in eight premolars and molars of three individuals. Unfortunately, the estimation of age and sex was impaired by the lack of preservation of the bone parts. Nevertheless, from these teeth it can be inferred that all individuals were more than 12 years old, and that they generally enjoyed good oral health.
Riverine Women from the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve (MSDR), Tefé, Amazonas, Brazil: Nutritional Satus and Social Determinants of Health
Filgueiras, LA; Silva, HP; Ramos, EMLS; Moura, EAF
It has been recognized that Amazonian rural populations are under considerable socio-ecological stress, and the percentage of individuals with nutritional problems is high. Here we analyzed the nutritional status and Social Determinants of Health of women from the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve (MSDR), Amazonas State, Brazil, to evaluate their health situation. Anthropometric measurements and interviews were carried out between 2008 and 2010 in 82 women aged 18 to 58 years. Their subsistence is based on fishing, extraction of forest products, agriculture and, more recently, retirements, cash transfer governmental programs (Bolsa Família), and jobs at the MSDR and in Tefé. There is no sewage system in the communities, and the majority houses do not have inner toilets. Water is collected directly from river or wells. They use mostly folk medicine to take care of the family as access to health services is limited. Average height, weight, BMI and waist circumference were 152.21cm, 61.93kg, 26.73, and 84.5cm, respectively. 31.7% were overweight and 26.8% obese according to the WHO cut-off points, indicating they are at higher health risk for chronic diseases. Although there have been improvements in the population's quality of life in the last decade, there are still a large number of women without access to health care. In general, the nutritional situation of MSDR residents resembles that of other rural areas of the Amazon where populations are also socioecologically vulnerable. It is expected that these results will contribute to the development of more effective public health policies for these groups.
Sickle Cell Disease and the Relationships of Race/color Self-declaration and Genomic Ancestry in the Brazilian Amazon
AK Silva; HP Silva
In the State of Pará, Brazil, Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) occurs in approximately 1% of the population, being a serious public health problem. Research relating genetic ancestry (GA) data with race/color self-declaration of people with SCA is still rare in Brazil. We analyzed 60 patients of both sexes, between 11 and 46 years of age, which were treated at the reference center for hematologic diseases in the State using a mix of semi-structured interviews about socioecologic conditions, self-declaration of race/color, clinical data, and autosomal GA test to investigate the possible interrelations among these variables. The self-declaration used the standard Brazilian census classification, and GA tests were performed using 61 Ancestry Information Markers (AIMs). Ancestry was estimated by Structure v.2.3.3 software, with three parental populations (European, African and Amerindian). The results showed that 41% of the group presented mostly European ancestry; 30.25% mostly Amerindian, and 28.2% mostly African. Among people with predominantly European GA, only 12% self-declarations were similar to the AIMs. The group with Amerindian composition had 77% similarity between GA/Self-declaration. The individuals with higher African GA reached 91% of agreement between GA/Self-declaration. As SCD is classically considered a disease of the Black population, DNA analysis and self-classification of race/color can be useful health information when considering the ethnic/genetic diversity of the Brazilian population. The majority of the participants (90%) self-declared as black or brown, but most of their GA was European, which expresses the complex relationships between genetic data and socio-historical events in the Brazilian Amazon.
Biological Anthropology of Brazilian Populations – past and present.
In Brazil, Physical Anthropology has been a recognized field of studies since the end of the 19th Century. Nevertheless, starting in the 1950`s until the early 1990`s, this field almost disappeared from academic institutions, even though some individual researchers continued to work with themes related. As a holistic and dynamic field, throughout its history, Biological Anthropology has proven its importance. Nevertheless, until 2010 there was no formal training, whether at the undergraduate or graduate level, in Physical/Biological Anthropology in the country. In 2010 the Graduate Program in Anthropology of the Universidade Federal do Pará (PPGA/UFPA) was inaugurated as the first training program involving the four traditional fields: Archeology, Bioanthropology, Linguistics and Sociocultural Anthropology, becoming the only one in the nation to offer training at the Master’s and Doctoral levels specifically in Biological Anthropology. This initiative helped to increase the creation of joint Anthropology and Archeology programs throughout the country, and the expectation that, as the number of Biological Anthropology graduates increase, there will be other programs created in the Four Fields, Boasian, model. Faculty from PPGA has engaged in transdisciplinary research, some of it in partnership with colleagues from USA and other countries, in a broad spectrum of themes. The program is helping to forge a new generation of anthropologists, able to investigate issues from pre-historic to contemporary populations, demonstrating that the field can have an important role in the comprehension of the distinct problems faced by the Brazilian society, from its past to the present.
Relationships among molecular markers, blood biochemistry, and anthropometry in Amazonian Native American populations.
Diniz, I.G.; Silva, H.P. ; Guerreiro, J.F.
The epidemiological and nutritional transition among Native Americans is developing fast in Latin America, which partly explain the emergence of chronic noncommunicable diseases, specially obesity. Nevertheless, obesity is a multifactorial disease and presents very complex inheritance patterns where the cumulative contribution of diverse genes results in a greater or smaller individual susceptibility to certain environmental factors. In this sense, we sought to investigate the relation of Body Mass Index (BMI), cholesterol, glucose and triglycerides with three single nucleotide polymorphisms - SNPs (ABCA1 rs9282541; ADRB3 rs4994; and PPARG rs1801282) known in the literature as associated with obesity in populations around the world. A total of 590 adult individuals (51.86% female, mean age 39.44), living in 11 indigenous villages in the State of Pará participated in the study. The overall mean BMI and blood biochemistry among these populations were within normal limits. However, when groups were considered separately, the highest overweight frequency (BMI ≥25) found was 72.7% in one given population. We found association of BMI with the SNPs of the ABCA1and ADRB3 genes. In addition, marginal association was found with the SNP of the PPARG gene (p = 0.06). All polymorphisms were tested for relative risk (odds ratio). The mutant alleles of the ADRB3 and PPARG genes had an odds ratio of 1.37 and 1.47, respectively. In contrast, the mutant allele of ABCA1 presented a lower relative risk than the wild-type allele (0.48) suggesting a protection against obesity to the carriers of this Native American peoples’ exclusive variant.
Funding by UFPA, CNPq and CAPES.
Infant Condition and the Timing of Deciduous Tooth Emergence in the Brazilian Amazon
J.E. Spence, D. Guatelli-Steinberg, B.A. Piperata, B. Floyd, H.P. Silva.
Although highly heritable, deciduous tooth emergence timing is not impervious to environmental influence. Studies investigating the contribution of environmental factors to emergence timing are inconsistent, in part because gestation length is not always considered. Drawing on longitudinal data from 100 mother-infant dyads in a semi-urban town in the eastern Amazon Basin, and using reliable methods to consider gestational age, we tested three hypotheses: 1) there will be no sex difference in emergence timing; 2) infant size for gestational age (SGA) will be inversely correlated with first-tooth emergence age; 3) infant postnatal growth rate will be inversely correlated with first-tooth emergence age. We implemented survival analysis because the outcome variable was censored within similar but unequal intervals and the Weibull model because the conditional probability of tooth emergence increases with time. Contrary to previous studies, we found that the first tooth was 60% more likely to emerge earlier in females (P = 0.026). There was a significant association between SGA and emergence timing of the first tooth (P = 0.007), with an increase in SGA category (small, appropriate, large) increasing the likelihood of emergence by 106%. Gains in infant length, weight, and head circumference were significant predictors of age at first-tooth emergence (P ≤ 0.004), with the likelihood of emergence increasing from 10–170% per unit gain. Our findings confirm that environmental factors play a significant role in the variation of deciduous tooth emergence timing and demonstrate that emergence is susceptible to influence at various stages of development.
This work was supported by Fulbright and the National Science Foundation (1260745).
Chronic Diseases in Amazonian Populations: socioepidemiology and biocultural perspectives.
Silva, A.K.L.S.; Filgueiras, L. ; Tavares, R.B.; Silva, H.P.
In Brazil, the African-derived groups have been historically discriminated. Even though there is a National Policy for the Health of the Black Population (PNSIPN) there is still a dearth of actions for its implementation. Especially among the Quilombola populations, hypertension, type 2 diabetes and Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) are not adequately identified. This work analyzes the links between socioepidemiologic and biocultural aspects of these rural afroderived groups and the main challenges faced in their search for health. Data comes from projects conducted between 2008 and 2016 with the participation of over 2500 people, of 24 Quilombola communities, and 60 SCD patients from Pará State. In general the most prevalent diseases among children are related to the respiratory and digestive tracts, dermatitis and dermatosis. In relation to the weight patterns there is a simultaneous occurrence of undernourished (up to 4%) and overweight (up to 10%) in 0 to 10 years old children, and the women present a high prevalence of overweight and obesity (21%). Men present a high frequency of hypertension (18%). Among the patients, 65% live in poverty, in periurban and urban areas, 83% consider themselves "Black" or "Brown", and the majority indicates having suffered some form of discrimination throughout their lives. In general, the harsh conditions of life, low economic status, environmental situation and social vulnerability of the rural Amazonian populations have strong impacts on their well-being. The work of biological anthropologists in Brazil is fundamental to help empower the Black populations in their struggle for health rights.
Oral Health in a Rural Population of the Brazilian Amazon: implications for interpretation of dental caries in the past.
Da-Gloria, P.; Piperata, B.A.;Hoffman, C.; Simionato, M.R., Oliveira, R.E.; Nogueira, F.N.
Dental caries is a pathological condition caused by the fermentation of carbohydrates by oral bacteria. Traditional interpretation of past caries frequencies considers dietary habits as the main cause of this pathology, as exemplified by the association between increased caries prevalence with the transition to agriculture. Other authors suggest that human biology, such as hormones, immune function, pregnancy, and genetic background, should be also considered when interpreting the prevalence of caries in past populations. In this study, we aim to test the relative importance of diet and human biology in predicting caries rates in relatively isolated, rural Amazonian communities located along the Middle Solimões River, Brazil. This population still practices slash and burn agriculture, fishing, hunting, and collecting, with industrialized foods making only moderate contributions to their diet. In addition, the population has limited access to dental and medical services and a relatively high fertility rate. We collected data on saliva flux, dietary habits, oral pathologies, oral hygiene, and reproductive histories of 107 riverine people (39 men and 68 women; average age of 27 years). We ran a multiple linear regression using decayed, missing, and filled teeth as a dependent variable. Our model explained 20.7% of the variation and found age and stimulated saliva flux as the main predictors of caries prevalence. Although this is a preliminary model, we can highlight the importance of saliva flux as a protector against caries, emphasizing a multifactorial interpretation of caries disease.
Funded by FAPESP (process 2013/0069-0)
Resilience of the hunter-gatherers of Lagoa Santa, Brazil: A new case of Paleoamerican late survival.
Vicensotto Bernardo, D.; Da-Gloria, P.; Neves, W.A.
The contributions of Biological Anthropology are crucial to understanding the occupation of the New World, allowing the proposition of models discussing origin, dispersion, and chronologies of Native Americans. In this context, the investigation of long-term occupations can shed light on the processes of resilience, territorial strategies, and biocultural adaptation of the Native Americans. Here we present a new case of Paleoamerican late survival in South America, based on a new radiocarbon date and the morphology of Lapa do Caetano's skull exhumed in the beginning of the 20th century at Lagoa Santa, Central-Eastern Brazil. We applied multivariate statistical techniques on craniometric measurements in accordance with Howells' protocol followed by tests for the best dispersion scenarios to evaluate the likelihood of the late survival of Paleoamerican morphology. Our results show that Lapa do Caetano' skull is dated to 2120 +/- 30 BP (BETA 396821) and retained the same Paleoamerican morphological pattern found in early skulls in the Americas and in recent crania found in Central-Eastern Brazil. The archaeological data show intermittent hunter-gatherer occupations in the region retaining the same basic strategies of subsistence. These results suggest strong resilience of these South American hunter-gatherers in both cultural and biological aspects, which have important implications for the models of peopling of the New World. As in previous studies, our investigation shows that models which consider a late survival of the Paleoamerican morphology are better adjusted compared with the models that propose a complete substitution of this early morphology.
Funded by CNPq and FAPESP
Sessão de fotos
Ariana Silva apresentando na sessão sobre saúde e transição da Human Biology Association, em Cleveland, USA.
|Dr. Milford Wolpoff recebe o livro 'Filhos' das mãos de HPS|
|Dr. Yohannes Selassie, codescobridor do Ardipithecus ramidus e diretor do Museu de História Natural de Cleveland usando o botom do Lebios|
|Drª Nina Jablonski em palestra sobre diversidade e cor da pele|
|Drª Silviene Oliveira, da UNB, faz apresentação na sessão sobre Bioantropologia no Brasil|
|Entrega de prêmios da AAPA|
|Grupo do Lebios em visita ao Laboratório de Antropologia Física do Cleveland Museum Of Natural History|
|HPS e Dr. Berhane Asfaw, diretor do Museu Nacional da Etiópia|
|Pôster da doutaranda Letícia Muller em destaque ao centro na sessão da HBA|
|Matt Cartmill recebendo o prêmio Darwin da AAPA 2019|
|Ligia Filgueiras durante apresentação na sessão flash talks na HBA|
|HPS com Donald Johanson (descobridor de Lucy) e Michael Hennejberg, da Universidade de Adelaide, Austrália|
|Ligia Filgueiras e Ariana Silva recebendo o Prêmio Internacional da Human Biology Association|
|Jantar de boas vindas da Human Biology Association|
|Ligia e Ariana apresentando na sessão sobre Antropologia Biológica no Brasil|
|Ligia Filgueiras e Ariana Silva recebendo o Internacional Award da Human Biology Association|
|Mesa no Museu de Cleveland onde foram feitas as análises e a definição da espécie Lucy pelo Donald Johanson e Tim White|
|Prof. Barbara Piperata, da Ohio University, apresentando na sessão sobre Bioantropologia no Brasil|
|Profª Lorena Madrigal com Hilton e Ariana na sessão sobre Bioantropologia na Amazônia na AAPA|
|Sessão de entrega de prêmios da HBA|
|Sessão de pôsteres da HBA|
|Sessão em homenagem a C. Owen Lovejoy, com a presença da Nina Jablonsky, Berhane Asfaw, Milford Wolpof, Karen Strier, Clark Larsen, Yohannes Selassie, Donald Johanson e Matt Cartmill|
|Sessão na AAPA sobre Bioantropologia no Brasil|
|Visita na Haman-Todd collection, a maior coleção esqueletal dos EUA, onde a Lucy foi identificada|
|Votação para mudar o nome da AAPA para American Association of Biological Antropology, após 100 anos de sua inauguração. Momento histórico|
|Prof. Hilton Silva com docentes e estudantes da University of Nevada em Reno, discutindo sobre futuras cooperações acadêmicas na Amazônia|